You may find a lot of the information you are looking for in the in-app help menus. Installation/planning and configuration guides are available, usually with the install media, or from Pharos support. I was in the same boat you are in about a year and a half ago.
I'm often mistifyied with the hoops to jump through to access these basic documents. Previous to these forums, finding any online help was often relagated to third party websites where conscientious bloggers had posted their own experience. So things are at least moving in the right direction.
The terminology you are looking for to create "non-domain installers" is "Packages."
I am assuming you have access into the Administrative application on your server.
If you have a "Direct Printing" configuration where the specific printer (Device in 8.3 terminology) is chosen at print time the workflow will look something like this:
A user prints (either from a domain machine or from a Pop-Up client installed with a Package). This job will be pointed at a Queue in Pharos and delivered to the server. It will then leave the windows print queue and enter into the 8.3 system passing to a Print Group. This group will be configured for direct printing and assigned a device to print to. The job will will be passed via LPR/LPD to the physical printer. And Voila, you have a print out.
If you are taking advantage of the "Secure Release System" the behavior is a little different:
A user prints (either from a domain machine or from a Pop-Up client installed with a Package). This job will be pointed at a Queue in Pharos and delivered to the server. It will then leave the windows print queue and enter into the 8.3 system passing to a Print Group. This print group will be configured with access to multiple Devices. At any of these devices, a user can either use a swipe method to release or have a Release Station to direct their jobs to a desired device. Once a devices has been chosen, by swipe or release station the job will will be passed via LPR/LPD to the physical printer. And Voila, you have a print out.
The primary goals of the "Packages" that you install are to deliver specific print drivers to the user, and to collect identifiable information to be able to charge back the user appropriately. A Pop-Up client included in the package will collect user information. A Queue may be configured to require the information from a Pop-Up client.
From a student's personally owned laptop, the order of steps would be Package Client -> Queue -> Print Group -> Device maybe with a Release Station thrown in on the way to the device.
From the perspective of how we do it, we have four principal queues, "Black and White", "Student Black and White" and "Color" and "Student Color". The student queues require the Popup Client, that other queues do not.The students print to these queues, which direct jobs to the BW Print Group or Color Print Group. When a student swipes on a Release Station at one of our printers, that Device displays all of the jobs waiting in a Print Group that that Device is associated with.
We can accomplish this because of standardizing on the Xerox Global Print driver. If we had multiple drivers for Black & White printing, we would have a Queue per driver and associate all of those Queues with the Black and White Print Group. A printer would then see all jobs, regardless of the Queue they were submitted to, so long as those queues were all connected to a Print Group associated with the printer.
I realize this is a lot to take in. For me it was best understood at looking at each layer and identifying if things are a one-to-many or many-to-many relationship, like when working with databases, but I'm special.
Best of luck!